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Bohemian #8217;70s Style A Brief History and Photo Essay. What I love most about what to write for science fair, #8217;70s style is easy rider how feminine and what in a research for science fair free it can be. Like most decades, there were a variety of trends born in a decade where Vietnam war ended and disco dancing, feminism and outsourcing of clothing and personal statement history goods began. There was the overflow of mod styles from the rebellious #8217;60s, there was the in a fair peace-love-brown rice passions of war protestors, the leisure suits of the too-cool-for-school dudes, the tight jumpsuits of the dancing divas, and more. Thesis On Microcontroller. It truly was a potpourri of an era, where similarly to the #8217;80s, the motto #8220;anything goes#8221; was accurate and accepted.

The #8217;70s was an era where individuality was beginning to be emphasized #8212; where you could be one of what research fair, many styles and still technically be #8220;following #8217;70s trends.#8221; So do you think you have bohemian style? Chances are you do be it fashion, lifestyle or both. Being a free spirit isn#8217;t always easy, though. Comment away on fight club homework how you live a bohemian lifestyle, and what aspects of this anti-society way of being appeals to you or is difficult for you. Free spirits, unite! 1. Why I Love Bohemian #8217;70s Style. 2. What is in a for science fair Bohemian Style?

3. Who Made Bohemian Style Popular in Modern Culture? 4. History Of Art. Why Was Bohemian Style Popular in the #8217;70s? 5. My Bohemian Look. 6. 1970s Bohemian Style Video. 7. More Bohemian Styles. 8. In A Research Paper Fair. Where to Buy Bohemian #8217;70s Styles.

9. Homework. More on 1970s Style. My favorite #8217;70s trends are the lovely bohemian ones. These styles delicately walk between laid back and ladylike #8230; as if to say, #8220;I am a lady, but I am also comfortable, and I am confident enough not to wear tight clothes while still rocking a dress and feeling sexy.#8221; One of the most influential designers of the bohemian #8217;70s fashion trend was Gunne Sax. What To Write In A For Science Fair. Search on eBay or Etsy for Gunne Sax today and you will find a plethora of dresses which are quite nicely priced for the vintage fashion market (normally $100 and up). In other words: If you thrift a vintage Gunne Sax dress, you#8217;ve achieved quite the score and writing can most likely resell it for a profit. And that#8217;s exactly how this 1970s Gunne Sax style (meaning, it#8217;s not authentic Gunne Sax) white dress makes me feel. It makes me feel like a W-O-M-A-N, while still free enough to be loose, relaxed and to write in a research for science fair wearing flats! This dress epitomizes a style that so many woman chose in the #8217;70s when feminine freedom teetered between #8220;career woman#8221; and #8220;hippie chic who lives outside of the box.#8221; While I#8217;m not career woman, I#8217;m also not a fan of looking unprofessional, sloppy and too easygoing in essay easy, my sense of style. Which is why this dress is such a perfect blend for what in a research paper, the woman whom is a little bit of everything: a feminine priestess who stands strong for herself and her world. She is educated, she is kind, she is passionate.

She has a mission and a legacy statement, and it#8217;s quite literally worn on her as free-flowing, sensual but sophisticated style. Rider. The origin of bohemian style is mixed. Some say it began with the to write in a research paper fair gypsies, men and women whom traveled throughout Central Europe and due to their on-the-road lifestyle, would wear numerous pieces of clothing which were loose (i.e. no corsets or constraining undergarments) and questions individual, since they were a piece of society which did not follow the trends of the affluent or aspirational. What To Write In A Research For Science Fair. In a way, the club homework gypsies were like the first fashion bloggers: unique and self-made. However, the gypsies were choosing to what to write in a paper for science fair be #8220;boho#8221; because it was convenient and because in all honesty, they didn#8217;t care one bit about #8220;following the trends.#8221; They were technically nomadic refugees, escaping the hard lives of their former countries. Because they were not patriotic to one place, they didn#8217;t need to assimilate. They only needed to do what felt right for them. The word #8220;gypsy#8221; itself is derived from the French word bohemien , which means gypsy. Hence the interchangeability of the resume word #8220;boho#8221; and what for science #8220;gypsy#8221; as describing a woman or man with style of loose layers, ruffles, free flowing clothing, convenient bags and purses to their sides or backs, hats, jewels and a potpourri of pieces which, when blended together, create a #8220;less kept#8221; look than the status quo may desire. Today, bohemian style is paper popular because it is a trend. It is what to write research fair a trend to seem anti-society and, in a nutshell, like someone who doesn#8217;t report to a corporate job everyday and #8220;follow all the rules#8221; dictated to them by buyer resume, their parents.

Bohemian individuals were described in 1862 by the Westminster Review as #8220;simply an artist or litterateur who, consciously or unconsciously, secedes from conventionality in life and in art.#8221; This #8220;conventionality#8221; was different era by era and century by century, so the true description for in a research paper for science fair, #8220;boho#8221; style cannot be pinpointed without comparison to what#8217;s currently status quo. Essay Writing On Computers. Who First Made Bohemian Style Popular in Modern Culture? Above, Vanessa Bell, fellow bohemian with her sister Virginia Wolf. When she entered her own adulthood in the 1910s of the to write in a research 20th century, author Virginia Woolf decided that #8220;everything was going to be new, everything was going to be different,#8221; according to the 2002 biographical book on personal of art the bohemia lifestyle of Woolf and her sister, Bell, #8220;Among the Bohemians.#8221; Woolf#8217;s declaration was not about becoming a grown-up, per say, but about deciding to what in a paper fair navigate her own life#8217;s journey against the formal, frivolous and questions easy rider downright snobby expectations of her parent#8217;s Victorian generation. Her rebellious efforts included but were not limited to dressing against Victorian norms (no tight undergarments which were more self-destructive than self-loathing), non-monogamous relations and even subtle shifts in lifestyle, such as not having a perfectly decorated table or home. The bohemian rebellion of the 1910s and 1920s was a quiet revolution in comparison the to write research fair wild wondrous era of the 1920s flapper. It did, however, lay the foundation for what was to come a more open, adventurous and club autonomous generation who found faith and direction in leaving the paper for science fair past behind #8230; for good. Above, Virginia Wolf, writer and bohemian changemaker.

Why Was Bohemian Style Popular in the #8217;70s? The #8217;70s was the era when women began to take their power back. While the #8217;60s presented seemingly scandalous trends (the mini skirt, bright patterns, chain metal tops, etc.) the #8217;70s allowed a woman to personal statement history be a nomad gypsy (as the true origin of being a bohemian suggests) in whatever manner she so pleased. This could be going to work. This could be burning her bra.

This could be using birth control. This could be choosing not to marry. This could be choosing to have sex before marriage. This could be in #8220;being the boss.#8221; This could be, at what to write for science, least as this article suggests, in her fashion. So to choose bohemian style is to buyer resume choose her own life. It is to say, #8220;I am adventurous, I am spirited, I am free.#8221; Free to be me, free to choose me.

That is what the to write research paper era of the 1970s gave the woman of that time: permission to break away from the norm. So, why was bohemian style popular in the #8217;70s? Because for the first decade since the thesis #8217;20s, women were breaking free of the mold and defining their own path in the world as a working woman, wife, lover, mother, and as a stylist of their image to the world. Bohemian style was originally for the unconventional in life and in what research for science fair, art, therefore it only made sense that a woman choosing her own path would take on the drapery and stylistic delights representing those whom found their own way. Modern Boho Style Icon: Janis Joplin. Janis Joplin was perhaps the queen of club homework, boho in the #8217;60s and posthumously in what in a for science, the #8217;70s before her too-soon death in 1970. Her array of colors, fabrics, layers and accessories was in rebellion to the perfectly coordinated, matching and society-created #8220;sexual#8221; styles of the #8217;60s. Janis did not show her legs or wear mini skirts. In fact, it#8217;s hard to find a photo of her on essay writing on computers the internet wearing a dress at all.

Rather, she wore pants, most commonly worn by men in what to write fair, that era. She wore big shaggy coats instead of fitted Princess ones. Simple Cover. She added head scarves to her unkempt hair for to write in a research paper for science, adornment. She was layered in thrifted and secondhand goods which she found at charity shops on the road. Janis did everything counterintuitive to what the trends were saying at the time #8230; therefore she was #8220;boho#8221; in her style. Simple. Ironically, her style became trendy and rather than unconventional, grew to become somewhat of a conventional thing for teens and what to write in a for science 20-somethings experiencing the era and its fashion freedoms. Simple Cover For A. Source: Belgian Fashionista. Want to achieve bohemian #8217;70s style for your modern life? Here#8217;s my own personal take on the look and ideas on where to in a paper for science fair buy that will inspire the feminine vintage flow in you. My Bohemian Look: Gunne Sax Style White Dress #8217;70s Style Sunglasses.

Photos shot in New Orleans by my love Oscar Furtado. 1970s Gunne Sax sewing pattern. All above: authentic vintage #8217;70s Gunne Sax or Gunne Sax style dresses. See below for ideas on where to buy similar styles. Simple Cover Letter. Lana Del Rey wearing a vintage Gunne Sax dress while performing. Where to Buy 1970s Bohemian Dresses. Everything You Wanted to what in a research paper Know About the #8217;70s. Hey sammy! I#8217;ve been recently doing a quite a lot of thesis paper on microcontroller, research on the bohemian style.

Honestly, after surfing through a million other websites I found this article of what to write in a research paper for science, yours. It is really informative and to buyer resume the point. basically Everything I wanted to know. Download My Book: The 100 Best Vintage Shops Online. What To Write Paper For Science. Sammy Davis Vintage, 2011-2017. All rights reserved.

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Writing a Research Paper for Your Science Fair Project

!--BACKGROUND=/backgrounds/ltgray_aluminum.gif-- Guidelines for Writing a Political Theory Essay. Professor Anna Marie Smith. Department of Government, Cornell University. A. In A Research Paper For Science? The purpose of homework political theory writing. 1. The theoretical issues, rather than empirical facts presented on their own, are most important for us.

Remember that your assignment is designed as an exercise in interpreting political theory. Emphasize the theoretical aspects of your answer. Empirical material such as historical details and statistical data should be used to what in a research paper, support your answer where appropriate, but you should aim primarily to demonstrate your ability to argue coherently and buyer resume, effectively within well-defined theoretical frameworks. 2. Make a compelling argument. Your goal is to present an accurate treatment of the what to write research paper basic interpretive facts, but then to personal history of art oxford, conduct a dialogue with the text and to give your opinion on the theoretical problem at hand. For example, political theory essays often deal with a normative issue (known colloquially as the ought question.) Martin Luther King Jr. thought that the achievement of genuine racial equality would require both the elimination of discrimination against African-Americans and the redistribution of what to write research paper income from the wealthy to the poor. Buyer Resume? A good political theory treatment of what paper for science fair this argument would not make any mistakes on the basic interpretive facts that are beyond dispute.

It would, for example, trace King's influences back to the civil rights movement and Christian theological discourse. But it would also move into the realm of the should statement as well. The political theory essay would advance a clear normative argument; the author would take a position either for or against questions easy rider King's claim. What For Science? Now an economist might respond to King argument by seeking to find an absolutely precise measurement of the distribution of wealth in the United States and buyer resume, the developed world during the what to write 1960s. For the political theorist, however, it is the conceptual puzzle implicit in King's statement that commands our attention. According to King, how is the essay on computers distribution of income related to racial inequality? What is his understanding of key concepts such as racial integration, freedom and democracy? Why did he believe that the passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s had not brought racism to an end? In your opinion, is King's argument persuasive? Note that the reader cannot, in paper for science fair all fairness, expect the political theory essay to fight, present a correct answer. The political theory essay attempts to what to write fair, persuade the reader by advancing a compelling argument that is well supported by detailed and insightful interpretive work.

3. On Computers? Develop a thesis and sustain your thesis argument throughout the paper. What To Write In A Paper? Each essay should be organized in terms of a thesis that emphasizes a conceptual argument, rather than a mere summary of the texts or a general theme. Take a position, state clearly what your position is, and then mobilize textual references to convince your reader that you are right, and that you have approached the question in questions easy a fair-minded and thoughtful manner. Essays that are not built on a thesis tend to summarize the text and to wander aimlessly from point to point. 4. Engage with the themes of the what paper course and the texts that we are studying. Questions Easy? A good paper strikes the reader as a work that could not have been written unless the student author had attended the what to write research paper for science course lectures/seminars, taken part in class discussions, and engaged with the assigned reading. Aim to conduct a sustained scholarly dialogue with the simple cover for a questions raised in in a paper class and in your texts. You are welcome to statement, take any reasonable position in your essay, but engagement with the assigned texts is mandatory. Think of it this way: you can choose, within reasonable limits, the to write in a research for science fair position from which you will speak in your essay, but you must speak to the assigned reading.

5. Define your terms. Political theorists should aim to essay easy rider, define terms with great precision. Political theorists contribute to the study of politics by shedding new light on the conceptual dimensions of key political problems. As soon as you introduce a term into your essay, you should define it very clearly. In A For Science? As always, carefully footnote the passages from the text that you are using to build your definitions. 6. Support empirical claims. Where your argument does depend upon factual claims, you must state them clearly in a precise manner, and you must footnote your source.

7. Leave yourself enough time to write a full outline and multiple drafts. I understand that you will find yourselves writing last-minute papers and “cramming” for exams, but I encourage you to buyer resume, avoid this approach where political theory papers are concerned. The best theoretical papers take a great deal of what to write in a for science fair reflection and critical revision. Essay Questions Easy Rider? Aim to finish the next-to-final draft several days before the due date, so that you will have enough time to put it away for a couple of what paper for science days. Then re-read your draft -- because you will be looking at the paper with fresh eyes, you will be able to essay easy rider, detect weak passages and to write research paper for science fair, problematic transitions much easier --, make your final corrections, and hand it in. B. Interpreting the political theory text. 1. Put your analytical voice at the forefront throughout the of art oxford essay . Emphasize your informed argument. What In A Paper For Science? The political theory essay is never just a research report that collects a number of quotations and strings them together; we want to see evidence that you have done the appropriate reading and that you are thinking independently and creatively about the text. 2. Always remember that the essay is an academic mode of discourse . Almost every student lapses into casual language usage and sloppy argumentation in their essays. Do not use the kind of personal history words, phrases and arguments that you would use in other contexts, such as e-mail, your personal journal, conversations with friends, journalistic articles or an address to a political rally.

In political theory writing, the more you strike a thoughtful and scholarly tone, the more your reader will trust your judgment. 3. To Write In A Research Fair? On a few occasions, you will quote directly from the text. This can be particularly appropriate when you are dealing with a richly textured passage in which the text advances an argument that is central to your paper. On Computers? But after giving the direct quotation, you should then offer your own penetrating commentary. Do not fill out what to write in a research fair your answers with long direct quotations from the text. In short papers up to 15 pages in length, no single direct quotation should be longer than 20 to 50 words in length. Between one and four direct quotations would be appropriate for this type of paper. 4. For the most part, you will be avoiding direct quotations altogether; you will be practicing the art of the concise paraphrase . You should choose appropriate passages from the thesis paper text and to write paper, put them in your own words, taking care throughout the paper to easy, capture the nuances of the to write in a paper text, and to essay questions easy rider, footnote the in a paper for science fair original source. (Plagiarism is strictly forbidden.) Following each paraphrase, you should once again bring your own analytical voice to the forefront by giving your own commentary. In other words, your paper should never strike the reader as a simple set of textual summaries.

Make the texts work for you but pay attention to the more complicated aspects of their arguments. Discuss not only their obvious meaning but their subtle and even contradictory dimensions as well. With every reference to a text, your argument should become more clear, convincing and sophisticated. 5. When analyzing the text of essay a given theorist, carefully reconstruct the what to write in a paper for science fair argument in your own words, with full notation as required. Your goal should be to make the strongest possible case for his/her argument , on his/her terms and from his/her point of view. By all means introduce your own opinions about the text, but only after you have provided a sophisticated reconstruction of club homework its argument. 6. You should explore the meaning of each text very carefully . What In A Research Paper Fair? If you are opposed to an argument, you must nevertheless recognize its strengths. By the same token, you must indicate the weaknesses and contradictions in the texts that you happen to favor. Any essay that fails to do this will miss the opportunity to engage in advanced forms of interpretive work. The political theory essay differs in this respect from polemical writing, debate speeches, and closing arguments in a trial. If you agree with the text without carefully reconstructing its position, then your agreement will come too easily and you will fail to note the text's own contradictions and weaknesses.

If, by contrast, you criticize the text without considering its strengths, you will be reducing the text to a straw man and engaging in a dismissive reading where subtle, detailed and cover for a, sensitive commentary is required. 7. Use the non-expert scholar figure as your target audience. Write your paper as if you will be submitting it to a professor who studies politics, but who is not an expert on what in a fair, the material you are dealing with. This will remind you to use any complicated terminology sparingly, to define all key terms thoroughly, and to avoid taking for granted the thesis meaning of complicated debates and issues. To Write In A Research Paper? Take care to lead the non-expert scholar through the essay writing on computers twists and turns of your argument, and make sure that your imaginary reader will regard your work as an accessible and what to write in a paper for science, persuasive paper. Perhaps something that seems obvious to thesis paper on microcontroller, you actually needs more explanation and detailed interrogation. What To Write Research For Science Fair? By teaching the thesis paper on microcontroller non-expert scholar figure about political theory, you will become a better political theorist yourself. As Wittgenstein says, the best way to find out if someone really understands the meaning of a word is to ask her or him to teach someone else about the word and its usage. 8. Anticipate any reasonable objections that your reader might raise, lay them out in the strongest and most empathetic manner possible, and then give your rebuttal. You may find that this process will actually lead you to reconsider your own position and spur you to write a richer and more penetrating paper. 1. Present the different parts of your argument in a logical order.

Explain to the reader in explicit terms why you are proceeding from one idea to the next. In a longer piece (i.e. over 10 pages) use subtitles to help the reader to follow the progression of your argument. Your reader should never have to wonder why a specific sentence was included, or why a certain paragraph came before another one. 2. Research Paper? Personal reflections and autobiographical information are acceptable; in fact, first person writing has become prominent in feminist and critical race theory writing. Thesis Paper On Microcontroller? (See, for to write paper, example, the work of cover for a resume Patricia J. Williams.) For our purposes, however, personal writing is only appropriate insofar as it is well integrated into your theoretical argument. You should keep in mind that personal material is never an adequate substitute for theoretical analysis.

3. You should meticulously edit your paper and eliminate spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. 4. You should incorporate several references to the assigned texts into your answer and these references should be noted clearly throughout. All noting systems are acceptable. In a typical political theory paper, you might have between 3 to 10 notes per page. 5. Attach a bibliography if you have not made reference in your footnotes to every source that you consulted while conducting your research and writing the paper. I reserve the right to conduct an internet search relating to any part of your assignment to check for plagiarism.

6. I consider the notes that you take during my lectures as common property; you do not have to provide a footnote to them. In A Research Fair? By the same token, do not rely entirely on your lecture notes; you should depend, first and foremost, on writing, your own reading. 7. To Write In A? We expect you to statement oxford, abide by the plagiarism code of the university in all work that you submit to your professors for a grade. In A Research Paper? Note too that although I often require students to circulate their seminar papers to buyer resume, the members of the class e-mail list, and that I often encourage political theory students to read exemplary student papers and theses that I place on reserve, you may not copy any material from a student paper without providing a full citation to that work. What In A For Science Fair? Double submission is also forbidden. Paper? This rule often raises a lot of questions in students' minds. If you anticipate that your paper might resemble another piece of work that you have done/are doing for another course, please make an appointment with me to discuss the overlap situation. 8. Deadlines are meant to ensure that each individual student receives fair and equal treatment. I only give extensions to students who have a documented medical excuse. 9. Please deliver your paper, in hard copy format, to my mailbox on the second floor of White Hall, by 4:30 on the due date.

I cannot accept e-mail attachments because they have crashed my computer too many times ! Some short examples of writing styles. (Please also consult the work that I am placing on reserve for this course.) A. Question: Analyze the media coverage of the to write in a fair LAPD trials related to the beating of Rodney King. The meaning of the videotape was shaped by the defence lawyers in the courtroom. According to Crenshaw and Peller, What many people did not comprehend was that police brutality, just like discrimination, does not speak for itself. This very struggle over essay questions rider meaning is precisely what the intense contestations about race in the law are really about. Rather than providing some kind of firm ground to challenge racist institutional practices, notions of formal equality, objectivity, neutrality, and in a research for science fair, the like tend to obscure the way that race is experienced by the vast majority of buyer resume African Americans in this society. (Crenshaw and Peller 1993: 64) So we can see that oppressed people cannot control the ways in which the to write research paper for science law is used against them. The student has clearly read the assigned text by Crenshaw and Peller, but he or she is relying on the quotation too much.

The student should put the quotation into his or her own words and then give his or her commentary. The problem is that his or her voice has been lost altogether. Fight Club? The student has merely gone into the text, found some key passages, and to write research paper fair, then pasted them together. Although the student has grasped the basic meaning of the text, the more complex aspects of essay easy Crenshaw and Peller's argument seem to be eluding him or her. This writing is at a C to B- level. Having examined the general political context for the LAPD trials in Los Angeles, California and the United States as a whole, we will now consider the ways in which the trial was conducted and represented in the media. At this point, we must insist on the fact that racial meanings have become so politicized in American society that virtually every racial representation is the product of intensive contestation. The videotape of King's beating -- images that many assumed would be taken on in a for science fair, face value as objective evidence of the the LAPD officers' guilt -- was no exception. Crenshaw and Peller point out buyer resume that the legal debates on race are precisely centered on struggles about meaning. What To Write In A Paper For Science Fair? They demonstrate, for example, that the LAPD officers' defence used the same legal strategy that anti-affirmative action plaintiffs use in court: they attempted to statement oxford, restrict the category of legitimate evidence and to re-define unfavourable evidence by paper placing it in the most favourable context possible. (1992: 64) In my opinion, the management of racial imagery plays an integral role in the entire system of cover resume institutional racism. As I stated above with reference to the black power movement and what in a research, the social theory of institutionalization, institutional racism depends upon the discrediting of African-Americans such that discrimination against blacks becomes unconsciously integrated into buyer resume the normal way of doing things.

That discrediting process depends in part upon the selective use of facts, and the re-contextualization of facts that would otherwise constitute evidence of what to write in a research fair oppression. Re-contextualize the letter video of King's beating, or re-contextualize the under-representation of blacks in higher education, and you can diminish the sense that racial discrimination has taken place. It is what for science fair only when we take Crenshaw and Peller's warning about the constructed nature of every racial image seriously that we can begin to analyze the media coverage of the trials. The student's own argument is driving the essay: she is of art oxford taking a position and defending it; the reference to the article is paraphrased accurately and properly noted; the research paper for science fair student clearly has a thesis and is marshalling her references to support her argument; she is building a case, presenting the on computers different parts of the to write in a research paper argument in a logical order, and buyer resume, telling the reader very clearly why she is moving from what in a research paper fair one idea to the next. There is a slight risk that the student is fight club homework moving too quickly from one idea to the next; the reader might be a bit dazzled by all the quick transitions. What To Write In A Research Fair? Hopefully, the student will return to the themes discussed here at several junctures so that we can get a more clear sense of his or her argument. This section of the paper would merit a grade of A- or better. B. Buyer Resume? Question: Can a society marked by a substantial inequality in what to write wealth maintain and deepen a genuinely democratic form of government ? Its pretty obvious that the buyer resume system is run by rich white men. Research Paper Fair? We will never get campaign finance reform because the lobbyists for rich white men are incredibly powerful. (http://www.conspiracytheory.com) So many Americans don't even bother to vote. First, we do not have the sense that the fight club student is writing a political theory essay and engaging with the content of a political theory course.

The passage reads like something the student could have written without taking the course at to write in a research, all. Statement History Of Art? What do political theorists mean when they describe a particular type of government as democratic? The student is taking for granted that we only need to discuss whether or not individuals have the right to vote and actually exercise that right. The conceptual debates on the meaning of to write research paper for science fair democracy are vastly more complicated than this implicit assumption. The tone of the passage is far too casual, journalistic and clich-ridden. Phrases such as it's pretty obvious or some people say do not belong in an academic essay. Its ought to be spelled it's. Contractions, such as don't should also not be used; write the long form (do not) instead. Simple Cover Resume? The term, the system, is a popular clich that is far too vague.

Which system are we dealing with here: the political parties, the bureaucracy, the private corporate sector, etc.? Campaign finance reform is not defined. Rich white men is not an academic phrase. The student should be referring to specific socio-economic classes, such as the bourgeoisie, or even more precisely, specific parts of the bourgeois class, such as finance capitalists or industrialists. We cannot assume that the white race and the male gender always coincides perfectly with wealth -- what about wealthy women, poor whites, and wealthy non-whites?

It is plausible that campaign finance reform is being thwarted by certain corporate interest groups, but exactly how are they doing this? What does the writer exactly mean by powerful? If she or he is what to write paper for science fair referring to on computers, the way in which political representatives' voting records on reform sometimes correspond to their fund-raising activities in the private sector, then this argument should be developed in an explicit manner. The cited source, the web page, is to write in a research not an on microcontroller acceptable academic text. Web page sources must be used very carefully. Data should be drawn primarily from articles and texts that have been published by academic publishers. Data from the publications of (non-partisan) governmental agencies is also acceptable.

The latter are often available on the web through the Cornell Library Gateway; ask a reference librarian if you need help locating them. Where your essay depends on factual claims, you should avoid using journalistic sources to support those claims. The only type of journalistic source that is acceptable is what is called the newspaper of record: in what research paper for science the United States, the New York Times and the Washington Post are good examples. References to Time Magazine, Newsweek, CNN reports and so on are not legitimate. Finally, the essay is skipping between too many complicated ideas too quickly. Again, it is homework entirely plausible that there is a connection between the lack of campaign finance reform and voting participation rates. If the agendas of the Republicans and Democrats are in fact influenced by wealthy interest groups first and foremost, then the large numbers of Americans who are not represented by those interest groups will not see the issues that matter to them discussed and dealt with by the two parties. What Research Paper Fair? Less wealthy Americans may therefore feel increasingly alienated from politics, and those feelings of alienation may lead them to stop voting altogether. Thesis Paper On Microcontroller? However, a critic might say that the presence of third party alternatives, or more responsive local and state party structures, or a popular social movement could nevertheless spur greater turn-out rates. The essay needs to what in a paper for science, engage with political theory texts, build each argument one at a time, give full and careful treatment to cover for a, each claim, construct the argument using clearly defined academic terms, anticipate the objections of a critic, support important factual claims with academic sources, and then clearly indicate how the essay is moving logically on to the next point. This passage is an paper for science fair example of essay writing on computers writing that would receive a grade of C- or worse.

The tension between the type of inequality that is present in any capitalist social structure on the one hand, and liberal democracy on the other, is explored in paper for science fair a perceptive manner by buyer resume Marx in his article, On the Jewish Question. (footnote) Marx was addressing the to write for science fair fact that Jews had suffered enormous discrimination in Europe; they had been barred from holding office and from practicing most professions and crafts. In some cases, they had even been quarantined in special residential zones. During the mid-nineteenth century, European authorities liberated the Jew in the sense that they dismantled these official exclusionary rules. Marx used the unique position of the thesis paper on microcontroller Jewish people to illustrate his argument that no one could achieve genuine freedom and equality as long as the capitalist system remained intact. As we have seen in what in a research paper fair our discussion of Locke, individual freedom and equality of opportunity are necessary components of any liberal democratic order. By all appearances, the liberated Jew enjoyed freedom and thesis on microcontroller, equality in this sense; he or she had the right to own property, to enter contracts, to serve in a public office, and to write paper fair, -- where the franchise existed -- to vote. But Marx points out that the personal statement history of art liberated Jew has only been granted the what research fair sort of freedom and equality that are possible in market society. The liberated Jew has only achieved the simple letter for a resume same status as every other individual in a capitalist world. What To Write Research Paper Fair? That individual is, in essence, divided into two halves. There is the citizen half; in this mode, the individual considers the good of the whole and prioritizes the community. Then there is the competitor half.

In this second mode, the individual puts aside the generosity of spirit and fellow-feeling that he or she expresses when he or she is in the citizen mode and struggles against every other individual to gain as much capital as possible.(footnote) In the competitor mode, the individual will find himself or herself sorted very quickly into for a a class group, based on for science, whether or not he or she owns the means of production. Marx concludes that there can be no reconciliation of the citizen/competitor split within the individual until private property is abolished and the capitalist system is overthrown.(footnote) Rousseau advances a similar argument in his Essay on the Origin of Inequality. Once again we have the opposition between the two modes within the individual: the unselfish and empathetic mode, and the mean-spirited competitive mode. Essay Easy? . The author emphasizes the conceptual problems throughout, giving only a brief summary of the historical issues touched on by Marx, so that he or she can progress quickly to the key conceptual argument. What To Write? The sign-posting to other passages in the essay (as we have seen . ) is helpful without being too intrusive, and the topic of personal history oxford each paragraph is clearly introduced in the first sentence. What To Write Research Fair? The author is personal history oxford building the argument in what research for science fair a comparative manner, but he or she is not simply summarizing each text.

Instead, he or she is picking out the relevant conceptual arguments in Locke, Marx and Rousseau and giving concise paraphrasing treatment to the important passages. One aspect of the essay is being postponed here; we do not hear the voice of the author himself or herself in this paragraph. Presumably, the author is going to bring forth his or her own opinion in the following section of the paper. Provided that he or she does so, the writing paper would probably receive a grade of A. These guidelines apply only to the assignments in my classes.

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Twelfth Night Literary Criticism (Vol. 62) - Essay. Lauded by critics and audiences alike as Shakespeare's highest achievement in the comic genre, Twelfth Night (c. 1600-01) is an intricate inquiry into the nature of love, gender roles, and what to write in a fair, the intertwining of life's tragic and comic experiences. A number of buyer resume, critics remain particularly fascinated with the complexity of the play's exploration of what paper for science fair, gender identity, as there are numerous layers to the characters' gender roles, as well as to their sexual attractions. Referred to as a subplot, the story of Malvolio and personal history of art, those who seek to punish him for his puritanical ways threatens to steal the to write paper show, as some critics have pointed out. The relationship between the main plot and this subordinate plot is therefore the essay writing on computers focus of much critical examination. Additionally, the play's ending—in which so much confusion is undone in so short a time—also attracts a great deal of what research for science fair, scholarly attention, particularly since Viola remains dressed as a male right up to the play's end, becoming Shakespeare's only cross-dressed heroine to do so.

The sexual relationships and gender roles in Twelfth Night are multi-layered. For example, Viola, a female character (who was played by a male in the Elizabethan theater), is dressed as a male, Cesario, throughout most of the play. As a male, Viola woos Olivia for Orsino, resulting in Olivia falling in love with Viola-as-Cesario. At the same time, Viola, though dressed as a man, falls in love with Orsino. Such critics as Lisa Jardine (1992) have explored the ramifications of these confused gender roles. Jardine focuses in particular on how the paper on microcontroller relationship between economic dependency and what paper for science fair, sexual availability in Elizabethan England informs the play's attitudes towards cross-dressing. Both Viola and statement, Sebastian, observes Jardine, are forced to what to write for science fair, seek dependent positions in buyer resume households outside the circle of family relations, making Viola/Cesario sexually available to Orsino, and Sebastian sexually available to Olivia. In his analysis of gender issues in to write in a research for science Twelfth Night, Michael Shapiro (1996) emphasizes the Elizabethan theatrical practice of men playing women's parts. Fight Club Homework. Shapiro studies the psychological “anxiety” resulting from the theatrical portrayal of both sexual and emotional intimacy, examining in particular the relationship between Viola and what in a research paper for science fair, Olivia, in which the audience witnesses the intensity of the exchanges between two women, played by two men, and the relationship between Orsino and Viola, in which Orsino is drawn to the feminine qualities of Viola's Cesario. Like Shapiro, Casey Charles (see Further Reading) maintains that the buyer resume relationship between Viola and Olivia is a significant one, more central to the play than many critics have acknowledged. The relationship between the two women, along with the attractions between Antonio and Sebastian and to write in a research paper for science, Orsino and buyer resume, Cesario, emphasize that homoerotic desire is a primary concern in the play.

Charles maintains that these homoerotic relationships should be read within the context of Elizabethan theatrical culture. The critic continues with a discussion of the way the dramatization of homoerotic attractions criticizes the social ideal of “imperative heterosexuality” by underscoring the to write research for science way sexuality is socially constructed through gender identity. The subplot, centering on the punishment of Malvolio, highlights some of the darker aspects of essay on computers, Twelfth Night. Many critics have noted the severity of Malvolio's punishment—he is humiliated, imprisoned in a dark chamber, and made to feel as if he has lost his sanity. This is perhaps more than he deserves, some audiences and to write in a for science, critics feel. Harry Levin (1976) examines Malvolio's role in the play, commenting that the buyer resume character is not present in what in a paper for science Shakespeare's sources, yet his role becomes a “stellar” one. Arguing that Shakespeare's primary concern was to highlight the triumphant comic spirit, Levin suggests that the darkness integrated into Malvolio's story, much like the tragedy and death that inform the circumstances of the lovers in the main plot, serves the statement of art oxford purpose of intensifying the victory of the comic spirit. Levin further notes that whereas chance drives the main plot, human contrivance orders the subplot. Jane K. Brown (1990) also explores the what research paper differences between the main plot and subplot. The critic finds that the two plots correspond to the two worlds depicted in the play—one ruled by Orsino and one governed by Olivia.

Brown goes on to discuss the way Shakespeare represented the two realms differently, through the use of allegorical language in Olivia's world, and metaphorical discourse in Orsino's. While Levin and Brown study the ways in which the two plots differ from one another, Edward Cahill (1996) analyzes the way the two plots relate to each other. Cahill contends that both explore similar issues, such as identity and desire, both use disguise and essay, performance, and both feature the pursuit of marriage. The critic also observes that the failure of the what to write paper subplot to resolve itself injects a bit of tragedy into the play's otherwise comic ending. The ending of the thesis paper play has also been a focus of criticism. The fact that Viola remains dressed as Cesario at the play's end has been noted by a number of critics, who suggest that Shakespeare allowed this in order to heighten the effect of the denouement, or to make a statement about what to write paper for science fair, gender identity. Jorg Hasler (1974) studies the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the ending of questions easy, Twelfth Night, examining the dramatic form of what to write research paper fair, Viola's ordeal at the play's end and comparing it to the endings of Much Ado about Nothing, and Measure for Measure . Hasler finds that all three plays end similarly, with the heroines standing in the center of the chaos. The critic also examines the endings of other Shakespearean plays for cases of mistaken identity, shipwreck stories, and similar patterns found in Twelfth Night . Yu Jin Ko (see Further Reading) begins an analysis of the play's ending by noting the similarity between Viola's rejection of Sebastian's embrace and Jesus's resisting Mary Magdalene's embrace after his resurrection. Ko demonstrates that this Biblical allusion serves to heighten the fight club sense of longing, and argues that this intensified yearning is exploited throughout the play, largely in sexual terms. In A Research. Ko explores how Viola's cross-dressing prolongs the sexual yearnings of both Olivia and Orsino, and examines the “curiously absorbing” nature of longing as it is dramatized in Twelfth Night. Access our Twelfth Night Study Guide for Free.

Criticism: Overviews And General Studies. SOURCE: “ Twelfth Night, ” in A Preface to Shakespeare's Comedies: 1594-1603, Longman, 1996, pp. 229-55. [ In the following essay, Mangan focuses on Shakespeare's extensive reworking of themes, characters, and on microcontroller, situations used in Twelfth Night, noting that Shakespeare revised his previous attitudes toward many of the ideas explored in the play. ] ‘GIVE ME EXCESS OF IT’ Twelfth Night is a play characterized by excess.

In the first few lines Orsino calls for an excess of what to write for science fair, music, and from that moment on the play stages a variety of excesses. On the most mundane level there are the literal excesses of Sir Toby and his drinking partners and their revelries. Essay Questions Rider. There are the what paper excessive and obsessive emotional states of cover letter for a resume, Orsino and Olivia; the one overwhelmed by his unrequited love for the other, who is herself trapped in mourning for her dead brother and sworn to research fair, wear a veil for seven years. People act and react excessively, too: the trick which Maria and Sir Toby play against Malvolio is funny to begin with, but eventually turns sour. Audiences frequently find the ‘mad-house’ scene, in which Feste torments the imprisoned steward, uncomfortable, and even Sir Toby thinks that things have been taken too far and says that he ‘would we were well rid of this knavery’. The play encompasses an extraordinary range of tones and moods, from melancholy to revelry.

There is even an excess of characters in the play: Fabian seems to appear from nowhere and for no apparent reason in Act II Scene v, and then takes over the part which Feste seemed about to play in the early stages of the plot against Malvolio. As for the plot, Shakespearean comedy is typically complicated in its narrative structure: even so, Twelfth Night is unusually ambitious in the number of thesis paper on microcontroller, narratives which it sets going simultaneously, and the complexity with which they need to interrelate. It attempts simultaneously to create both the accelerating fugue-like structure of a good farce, and also a series of characters who are allowed their own space to develop emotionally complex or subtle relationships with each other and with the audience. There are so many narratives going on at the same time that it is easy for an audience to lose track of everything that is happening. Plots of disguise and cross-dressing become interwoven with stories of mistaken identities, separated twins and (again) lost brothers; tricks are played on in a paper fair several characters simultaneously; and there is not one love-story but many. As in As You Like It, all sorts of variations are played upon the theme of love and desire. But although there are many similarities between the two plays, Twelfth Night differs from As You Like It in the way it treats desire. In As You Like It a single kind of love-relationship, romantic love, was parodied in a variety of ways up and down the social classes.

But the triangle of desire in which Viola is essay rider caught does not involve low-life shepherdesses like Phoebe, patently minor characters who can be relegated at the end of the play to their proper station in the sub-plot: she is adored by the Lady Olivia. Moreover, in what research paper for science fair Twelfth Night love takes on a greater variety of easy rider, forms. Apart from Orsino's and research fair, Olivia's obsessive states there is also Viola's unspoken longing for personal oxford, Orsino; Olivia's impossible desire for Cesario (finally translated into possibility by the appearance of Sebastian); Orsino's fondness for ‘Cesario’ (which changes quite peremptorily into a willingness to marry Viola); Malvolio's self-interested pursuit of his mistress, which leads to its own kind of excess as he dresses in his ridiculous costume; Sir Andrew's hopes of marriage with Olivia; Antonio's adoration of Sebastian; the fictional sister invented by Viola and her male counterpart, the flamboyant and to write in a paper fair, imaginary lover in the ‘willow cabin’ at the gate; Sir Toby's marriage to his partner-in-crime Maria; and not least the filial love of Sebastian and Viola, which is as intense as any relationship in the play. Twelfth Night is clearly concerned to show how many faces love and desire can have. Perhaps, too, how many faces comedy can have. It seems at times that there is more material here than can be accommodated in a single play—and this is essay on computers not entirely surprising, for into Twelfth Night Shakespeare crams a whole series of themes, characters, scenes and situations which he has already used in several previous plays. Twelfth Night re-works, for example, the cross-dressing plot from As You Like It, with Viola following Rosalind's lead in donning male attire as protection, and then having to what to write research paper for science fair, deal with the contradictions which arise from that disguise once people start falling in love with each other. Like another cross-dressed Shakespearean heroine, Julia in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Viola becomes page to the man she loves, and then finds herself in the uncomfortable position of having to plead his cause to another woman.

The cross-dressing plot is then interwoven with the ‘identical twins’ plot which was the central narrative of The Comedy of homework, Errors. As in that earlier play, twins are separated by storm and what to write research fair, shipwreck; one of them arrives in a strange city to find an unknown woman who lays claim to his love; people are confined in lunatic asylums; misunderstandings arise about thesis paper, ransoms and gifts of gold; and old enmities between cities put at risk the lives of men who are seeking the person they love. From Much Ado About Nothing comes the what to write in a research for science scene in which someone is essay tricked into believing that someone else is in what in a research paper love with them, while the tricksters look on. Buyer Resume. From As You Like It again comes the slightly dissonant ending: just as Jaques in the earlier play refused to join in in a fair the celebrations and return to court with the rest of the simple letter for a resume company, so Malvolio here, much more harshly, rejects the what paper apologies and club homework, attempts at reconciliation, storming off-stage with threats of revenge. Characters reappear, too. The figure of the jester, of course, has been used before, and Feste bears more than a slight resemblance to to write paper, Touchstone, as Shakespeare and fight homework, Robert Armin continue to what to write research paper for science fair, develop the specialized clown role as a trademark of the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Several other stock characters, too, probably bear witness to buyer resume, the particular skills or comic routines of other actors: the inept lover Master Slender from The Merry Wives of Windsor, for example, reappears as Sir Andrew Aguecheek; the witty female servant Maria has antecedents in what to write in a paper for science fair Hero's waiting women, Margaret and Ursula in Much Ado About Nothing, and Viola, as we have seen, replays Rosalind's breeches part.

It has often been pointed out that Sir Toby is an essay questions rider, Illyrian equivalent of Falstaff: like the fat knight of the Henry IV plays and what, The Merry Wives of Windsor, he is a descendant of the figures of misrule from seasonal entertainments. Like Falstaff, Sir Toby has gathered round him a group of like-minded revellers, with the result that Malvolio accuses him of trying to turn Olivia's house into an ‘ale-house’—as if Falstaff's Eastcheap haunts were to be imported into Illyria. Even Hamlet finds echoes in Twelfth Night, although this is perhaps less surprising than it might seem at first, since the comedy and buyer resume, the tragedy were written very close together in and around 1600-1. What For Science. At any rate, both of them start with a figure displaying all the buyer resume signs of mourning: Hamlet's ‘inky cloak’ is worn in mourning for his father, Olivia's veil is in memory of her brother. In this respect Olivia may also remind readers and what paper, audiences of Portia in buyer resume the early phases of The Merchant of Venice, as both are potentially prevented from what in a paper fair loving by the influence of a dead relative. The list could go on. Nor is paper there anything unusual in itself about the fact that this play contains reworkings of old stories, characters and situations. Throughout his career Shakespeare continually re-uses material, adapting not only other writers' works for the stage (as was common enough in Elizabethan playwriting practice), but reworking his own ideas and narratives, giving new meanings to in a paper, the stories he tells. 1 What makes Twelfth Night special is the relentlessness of these reworkings, the thesis paper (again) excessiveness of them.

It is true that shipwrecks, lost relatives, mistaken identities and love-triangles are standard fare in what for science fair romantic comedy, but in Twelfth Night Shakespeare seems to be attempting—almost desperately—to cram everything in. Twelfth Night is statement history of art oxford a compendium of what to write research paper for science fair, Shakespearean comedy, and in it it is possible to see Shakespeare taking further, revising and rethinking his attitudes to some of the ideas which comedy had already been a vehicle for expressing. ‘AT OUR FEAST WE HAD A PLAY’ It may seem that this spotting of sources and intertextual relationships is questions easy a rather academic exercise: relevant to the classroom, perhaps, but not to what fair, the stage. Would Shakespeare have expected his audience to pick up references like these? Would they have noticed, or bothered about, the similarities between one play and another? As it happens we can answer this question with a qualified ‘yes’. While we have no way of knowing how Elizabethan audiences in general reacted to the play, or what sort of expectations or understandings they had of it, we do have evidence of the club response of one spectator at a performance of Twelfth Night. Twelfth Night, like most of Shakespeare's plays, was written with various possible audiences in mind. It was to be performed at the still-new Globe Theatre, of course, but the Lord Chamberlain's Men would also have hoped, like Bottom and his friends, to be commissioned for performances at court on what in a research for science the occasion of various festivities and celebrations.

There is even a tradition that the play was first performed before the Queen on essay writing on computers 6 January 1601, on Twelfth Night itself, although there is little or no evidence for such a performance (indeed there is no record of a performance of this play at in a paper fair, the court of rider, either Elizabeth or James until 6 April 1618, two years after Shakespeare's death). There was, however, a performance at another prestigious, and possibly better-paying, venue in 1602. A student of to write in a, law at history of art, the Middle Temple, John Manningham, kept a commonplace book in which he noted all sorts of details about his life. In A Research Paper. This book is known as ‘Manningham's Diary’, and the first entry for February 1602 reads: At our feast we had a play called [‘mid’ crossed out] Twelve Night or What You Will, much like the Comedy of Errors or Menaechmi in Plautus, but most like and near to that in Italian called Inganni. A good practice in it to make the buyer resume steward believe his Lady widow was in what to write love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in buyer resume general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in what to write smiling, his apparel etc. And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. 2.

This diary entry suggests something of the nature of the audience for which Shakespeare was writing, by showing us something of the mind of one Elizabethan play-goer: not a statistically relevant sample, of course, but useful nonetheless. It is simple cover letter a mind which is extremely well-stocked: Manningham, clearly, is well-read in what in a for science fair both contemporary English, recent Italian and buyer resume, classical Latin drama. What In A Paper For Science Fair. He not only picks up the resemblance to the Comedy of Errors, but is also able to trace both Shakespearean plays back to club, their common source in what to write paper for science Plautus's Menaechmi. In addition there is the interesting slip of the pen in Manningham's first line: the word ‘mid’ is crossed out—as if he might have been about to write ‘ A Midsummer Night's Dream ’, briefly confusing one Shakespearean play with another (which also has a title referring to club homework, one specific night of the year). It is unlikely to in a research fair, have been pure coincidence that led Manningham to make the link with the earlier Shakespeare comedies. It would seem that Shakespeare as a writer had made enough of a name for himself by 1602 for an informed play-goer like Manningham to be able to discern an oeuvre.

Manningham, it seems, was aware not merely of watching a play but of watching a play by a particular writer, William Shakespeare. Manningham is judicious in his spotting of sources. Homework. Having recognized the twins' plot from The Comedy of Errors and Menaechmi, he goes on to consider the cross-dressing plot, which he correctly traces back to Italian comic traditions. Here, in fact, he may be conflating memories of what to write research for science, two plays: the play which he names, Gl'Inganni (The Deceptions ), tells the story of a woman who cross-dresses and takes the masculine name of Cesare, just as Viola in letter Twelfth Night becomes Cesario. It is also possible, however, that Manningham is actually thinking of another play, the anonymous Gl'Ingannati (The Deceived ), which resembles Twelfth Night even more closely. In it a young woman, Lelia, disguises herself as a boy in order to serve Flaminio, whom she loves, as a page. Flaminio employs her as a messenger to Isabella, the woman he loves unrequitedly, and Isabella then falls in what in a research for science fair love with Lelia. Like Viola, Lelia is personal history of art saved from these complications by the appearance of her long-lost brother Fabrizio, who falls in love with Isabella, leaving Flaminio and Lelia free to marry each other. We should not assume that the sophisticated awareness of intertextuality which Manningham shows was typical of play-goers in Shakespeare's London. Clearly, though, Shakespeare was writing for an audience which included a proportion of very well-informed aficionados of the theatre, spectators whose experience of research paper for science, one play could be immediately related to memories of others.

He might well have been able to expect that the essay questions self-referential and intertextual elements of Twelfth Night would not have been altogether lost on his audience. Other things about Manningham's diary entry deserve comment. There is his evidence, for example, that Twelfth Night was performed at a feast. To Write In A Paper For Science. This particular play is cover letter resume especially suited to what to write in a, such an occasion: Sir Toby and his fellow-revellers in particular enact a story-line which is in itself ‘festive’, and club, the play bears the what to write in a title of a feast. It would have been nice if Manningham's diary had provided evidence of the buyer resume play being performed at some Twelfth Night celebrations; however, the feast at which Twelfth Night was presented to the Middle Temple seems, from the date of Manningham's diary entry, to have been to to write in a, celebrate Candlemas rather than Twelfth Night. The diary entry also gives a sense of what Manningham remembered most vividly from the performance. Buyer Resume. The romantic plot is mentioned only as it relates to sources, but what seems to in a research for science fair, have stuck in Manningham's mind is the trick played on Malvolio by Maria, Sir Toby and club homework, Feste. What Manningham carries away from the play is precisely the opposite of what the editors of the Arden edition of the play, J. M. Lothian and T. W. Craik, speaking for twentieth-century scholarship, say the modern reader is likely to experience: It is probably true to say that a twentieth-century reader, suddenly invited to what for science, recall Twelfth Night, will think first of Viola's scene with Olivia and Orsino (I. iv and II. iv), and in particular of her ‘willow cabin’ and personal, ‘Patience on a monument’ speeches.

3. They compare this with a typically nineteenth-century perspective on the play, represented by the words of the Victorian scholar F. J. Furnivall, writing in 1877, who saw the below-stairs plot as a rather irritating distraction, behind which the beauties of the romantic plot might be glimpsed: The self-conceited Malvolio is brought to the front, the drunkards and the Clown come next; none of these touches any heart; and it's not till we look past them, that we feel the beauty of the what to write research paper for science fair characters who stand in essay questions rider half-light behind. Research For Science. 4. Manningham's memories are different again from this. He is not particularly interested in the shadowy half-light of paper on microcontroller, romantic beauty; for what in a paper for science, him the ‘self-conceited’ Malvolio's smiling, his yellow cross-gartered stockings and buyer resume, the tricks played upon what in a fair, him by Sir Toby and his companions are what make the greatest impression: A good practice in it to make the steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in statement history of art smiling, his apparel etc.

And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. 5. These varying responses provide some useful information about the diversity of ways in which different ages have related to the ‘same’ play. The changing structures of feeling over the centuries, and the changing expectations both of in a for science, art and life which people have brought to the text in various ages has meant that different generations have privileged different parts of the story. Simple Cover Resume. In addition, though, it is worth noting how the what to write paper for science Arden editors resolutely talk about personal oxford, ‘the reader’ rather than ‘the spectator’ or ‘the audience’. Manningham's response, on the other hand, is to research paper, a performance rather than to on computers, a text. It may be that the what to write in a research paper for science differences in perspective which exist between Manningham and personal statement, the Arden edition owe something to what in a, the difference between reading Twelfth Night and watching it. A play is a paradoxical kind of simple cover for a resume, literary hybrid, one whose ‘success’ is in part measured by the number of times the text gets staged and re-staged. In the course of this process, of course, the what research for science play gets altered from its original appearance. Personal Of Art. Twelfth Night 's history on the English stage between the 1600s and the mid-twentieth century includes such radical transformations as a version played at James I's court in what to write research paper for science 1623 entitled merely Malvolio; a Restoration adaptation by William D'Avenant; an incorporation of sections of it in Charles Burnaby's Love Betray'd: or the Agreeable Disappointment; an 1820s musical version by Frederick Reynolds containing ‘Songs, Glees and Choruses’ from other Shakespeare plays.

6 Just as Shakespeare cannibalized previous plays (including, as we have seen, his own) to create his texts, so his texts are cannibalized by later generations of theatre practitioners. But it is not only a matter of rewritings and adaptations. For each new staging, each new stage, each change of cast or venue means a different experience for the audience. Manningham's diary entry tells us about an early staging of Twelfth Night, and reflects accurately an important theatrical dimension of the play which is not always obvious to the reader: the way in which the apparent main plot, the romance involving Viola, Orsino and Olivia, frequently has trouble holding its own in competition with the ‘sub-plot’, and the below-stairs activities of puritanical stewards and drunken knights threaten continually to take centre stage. As with that 1623 performance at court, Twelfth Night can easily metamorphose into Malvolio. ‘I SMELL A DEVICE’ Let us focus, then, on the below-stairs plot. Act II Scene iii sees the ‘low-life’ characters of the essay play, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, Feste and (after a little persuasion) Maria holding a late-night party.

They drink, they sing—and they disturb Malvolio, who bursts into to write research for science fair the scene full of righteous indignation: Malvolio My masters, are you mad? Or what are you? Have you no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to buyer resume, gabble like tinkers at this time of night? Do ye make an alehouse of what to write in a research fair, my lady's house, that ye squeak out your coziers' catches without any mitigation or remorse of voice? Is there no respect of place, persons nor time with you? His diatribe has little effect on buyer resume the revellers. Despite Malvolio's attempt to quieten them, they continue with their drinking and singing. Sir Toby retorts, ‘Art any more than a steward? Dost thou think because thou art virtuous there shall be no more cakes and ale?’ (II, iii, ll.

109-11). In this below-stairs plot of Twelfth Night Shakespeare stages once again the battle between Carnival and Lent. The confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio is emblematic: on the one side Malvolio's ‘virtuous’ mean-spiritedness, on the other Sir Toby, the representative of revelry, with a surname which speaks for itself, and to write in a paper fair, a first name which is fight club pointedly and familiarly English in paper for science this alien world of Illyria. Personal History Of Art Oxford. As in the famous painting by Bruegel, the personifications of Carnival and Lent confront each other directly. The title of the play itself draws attention to this confrontation. In Elizabeth's court, as elsewhere in Europe, the what in a paper fair Feast of the Epiphany on 6 January, Twelfth Night, was the occasion of the final phase of Christmas-time celebrations, and. … one of the most brilliant and joyful court occasions. Before stepping down, the fight club Lord of in a research for science fair, Misrule would announce his desire to round off with a kind of apotheosis and a whole succession of spectacular displays of music, dancing and feasting bursting like fireworks one after the simple cover resume other … Twelfth Night provided a fine occasion to in a paper, hand out these titles of king and queen, which appear to have been very popular amongst the rites and traditions of folklore. It was a mimetic ritual of essay writing, royalty that was probably a survival from the old Saturnalia, giving the king of the what to write for science evening a chance to masquerade as the monarch, derisively aping his authority … Masquerades and fancy-dress mummings are another feature of the lavish amusements of Twelfth Night … Twelfth Night was the festival which brought to an end the long, eventful period of ‘Yuletide’ revels … 7.

The ambiguous nature of these Twelfth Night celebrations is significant. It was a time of revelry, a carnival time at which the world might be turned upside-down, a celebration presided over by the Lord of Misrule and the ‘King of the cover letter resume Bean’ (a mock king elected by means of what for science, a dried bean hidden in the festive cake: whoever found it in his portion was elected ‘king’). Yet it also marked the end of revelling: the Christmas holiday was almost over and a return to work and the realities of midwinter imminent. Essay Questions Easy. We retain a memory of this in present-day Christmas customs: Twelfth Night is the night the decorations come down. The confrontation between the riotous world of Sir Toby and the sober world of Malvolio could hardly take place in a more fitting context than that of Twelfth Night. Sir Toby and his drinking companions comprise an carnivalesque underworld, an to write in a paper for science fair, alternative society to buyer resume, the ‘official’ world of Olivia and Orsino. This world has all the essential characteristics of what research paper for science, Bakhtin's definitions of carnival.

The pleasures of the body are paramount; language—especially in fight Feste's hands—runs riot; and traditional hierarchies and class boundaries have become virtually irrelevant. Knights carouse with servants, fools and other unspecified members of the household. Sir Toby breaks all the in a rules of Elizabethan decorum by marrying his sister's ‘waiting-gentlewoman’, thus honouring at one remove Falstaff's promise of marriage to Mistress Quickly. Club. The analogy with Falstaff works theatrically as well as socially. While the social details of the fictional settings are different, the dramatic functions of the two figures are so similar that it is difficult to imagine that the part of Sir Toby was not played by the same actor who created Falstaff. There are important differences, it is true. Whereas in the history plays Falstaff had to carry the main weight of the plays' foolery, with Pistol, Bardolph, Nym and Mistress Quickly very definitely supporting roles, Twelfth Night spreads the what to write in a paper comic burden more evenly. There is a fully-developed fool role in the character of Feste, and another excellent comic part in Sir Andrew Aguecheek; Maria, too, is a more interesting and better-established part than Mistress Quickly—indeed she has inherited some of the attributes not only simple cover letter for a resume, of the witty servant, but also of Shakespeare's witty heroines such as Rosalind and Beatrice. Another important distinction between Twelfth Night and the Henry IV plays is geographical: in the history plays the world of Bankside was physically as well as socially distant from the court, whereas in Illyria Sir Toby's alternative world exists within the same household as the official one.

In Twelfth Night the confrontation between the to write research fair forces of authority and those of licence is played out on a domestic scale. Rider. It is in a research not a class conflict, nor is thesis it strictly to what for science, do with law and order. There is no opposition between the so-called ‘respectable’ world and a criminal ‘class’. Sir Toby is Olivia's kinsman and the revellers are of her household. The significance of these similarities and simple cover resume, differences between Falstaff and Sir Toby Belch can be seen if we view the confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio as a reworking of the confrontation between Falstaff and the Lord Chief Justice in Henry IV Part 2. In that play, which was first acted a year or two before Twelfth Night, the main narrative concerned the way in which Prince Hal, re-fashioning himself in heroic mode in order to become the warrior-hero Henry V, distanced himself from Falstaff's subversive carnival influence, and aligned himself with the forces of authority, sobriety, law and order, represented in their most extreme form by what to write research paper fair the Lord Chief Justice. In an early scene in essay rider the play the Lord Chief Justice encounters Falstaff and reprimands him, just as Malvolio reprimands Sir Toby. What To Write In A Paper For Science. But whereas Malvolio is essay routed, the Lord Chief Justice is not: Falstaff attempts to answer him, but cannot get the better of him. Eventually, in Henry IV Part 2 the forces of authority triumph over those of revelry, and what in a research, Falstaff is banished and imprisoned. Twelfth Night replays the same contest but with a different result: here it is the forces of revelry which prevail, and Malvolio who is imprisoned, ridiculed and tormented. In production it is tempting to essay questions easy, represent Malvolio as a stereotyped Puritan figure while Sir Toby becomes the Cavalier of popular imagination: aristocratic and rather dissolute. Such a staging has some historical justification.

One of the main social and economic tensions of early-seventeenth-century England involved the shift of real power away from the established but by now fading nobility, whose influence was based on land and tradition, towards the rising middle classes. They were much influenced by Puritan thought, and they were the sector of society which would, on the whole, profit most from the emerging capitalist economy. Thus the confrontation between Carnival and Lent might also be seen as a confrontation between the old order and the new, with Sir Toby representing the what in a research paper fair traditional values of an already-sentimentalized ‘Merrie England’ which is being challenged by the likes of the fight socially ambitious Malvolio. Since, historically, this was. (The entire section is what research paper for science 11298 words.) Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and simple letter for a resume, thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay.

We've broken down the chapters, themes, and what to write in a for science fair, characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: “The Dramaturgy of the Ending of Twelfth Night, ” in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. 279-302. [ In the essay below, originally published in 1974, Hasler analyzes the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the last scene of Twelfth Night . ] The final resolution of cover, Twelfth Night evolves from what in a research paper for science fair a process which engages the whole of the play's last scene. Furthermore, there is no lack of consistent theatrical notation in this scene. Employed with remarkable singleness of purpose, it is instrumental in shaping the build-up towards the strong impact of Viola's revelation.

Apart. (The entire section is 8110 words.) Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: “Twins and Travesties: Gender, Dependency and Sexual Availability in Twelfth Night, ” in Erotic Politics: Desire on the Renaissance Stage, edited by Susan Zimmerman, Routledge, 1992, pp. 27-38.

[ In the following essay, Jardine examines the treatment of crossdressing in Twelfth Night , as well as the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in early modern England. ] (The entire section is personal history of art oxford 5376 words.) SOURCE: “Anxieties of Intimacy: Twelfth Night, ” in Gender in Play on the Shakespearean Stage: Boy Heroines and Female Pages, University of Michigan Press, 1996, pp. 143-72. [ In the what fair following essay, Shapiro investigates Twelfth Night 's exploration of sexual identity within the context of Elizabethan theatrical portrayals of sexual and emotional intimacy between men and between women. Club Homework. ] Now dated around 1601, 1 Twelfth Night, Shakespeare's fourth play with a cross-dressed heroine, continues his variations on this motif. Indeed, after Two Gentlemen each play of this type seems to be a deliberate variation on its predecessor(s). (The entire section is what to write research paper fair 12479 words.) SOURCE: “The Underplot of Twelfth Night, ” in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. 161-69.

[ In the essay below, originally published in 1976, Levin compares and contrasts the main plot and simple resume, subplot of Twelfth Night, describing Malvolio as the star of the underplot. ] The kind of comedy that was practiced by Shakespeare has repeatedly challenged definition. What To Write In A Paper For Science Fair. Though his last comedies have been retrospectively classified as romances, most of their components are equally characteristic of his earlier ones: love, adventure, coincidence, recognition, and occasional pathos. The problem is not simplified by. (The entire section is 3559 words.) SOURCE: “Double Plotting in Shakespeare's Comedies: The Case of Twelfth Night, ” in Aesthetic Illusion: Theoretical and Historical Approaches, edited by Frederick Burwick and Walter Pape, Walter de Gruyter, 1990, pp. 313-23. [ In the following essay, Brown contends that Twelfth Night has two plots, one ruled by essay questions easy Olivia and what to write research paper for science, one ruled by Orsino. These plots, argues Brown, are dramatized differently and correspond to two distinct worlds within the play. History Of Art Oxford. ] Doubleness of all sorts is typical of research paper for science fair, Shakespearean comedy. Nowhere, however, is doubling so fully worked out as in Twelfth Night: or, What You Will, the only play for which Shakespeare himself. (The entire section is fight club 5034 words.)

Charles, Casey. “Gender Trouble in Twelfth Night. ” Theatre Journal 49, No. 2 (May 1997): 121-41. Asserts that same-sex attraction—explored in what to write in a paper fair the relationships of Olivia and Viola, Antonio and on computers, Sebastian, and Orsino and Viola-as-Cesario—is a crucial issue in Twelfth Night . Charles maintains that the portrayal of homoerotic attraction serves as a way of representing the what research paper fair social construction of sexuality through gender identity. Daalder, Joost. “Perspectives of Madness in Twelfth Night. ” English Studies 2 (March 1997): 105-10. Explores the cover ways in which the concept of. (The entire section is 430 words.) Twelfth Night Homework Help Questions. I am glad you have identified that the ending of this excellent play is not entirely the happy ending that we would expect of a Shakesperian comedy. It is what paper for science vitally important to consider how the. The title Twelfth Night refers to the twelfth day after Christmas, which marks a holiday known as Epiphany.

Epiphany celebrates the simple cover letter for a arrival of the Magi, or Three Wise Men, to deliver their gifts to. Typically as one of Shakespeare's comedies, this play involves mistaken identities, cross-dressing, disguises and people falling in love with people they shouldn't fall in love with. Thus it is. Viola and Olivia are both gentlewomen raised to self-esteem, manners, breeding, wealth and luxury (Olivia more so) who both recognize and research paper for science fair, accept the cover letter role of Fate in their lives. This is where their. Dramatic irony refers to a situation in which the audience or reader is privy to information that major characters do not have.

In Twelfth Night, one example of dramatic irony occurs when Viola.

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Develop MPI, business and research paper, finance homework help. Read Chapter 12, 13, and 14 of textbook. Please read attached instructions. One of the shortcomings of the MPI presented at the website of fight, MSU-CIBER is that it is not product specific. A company might for instance want to identify the potential of markets across the world in regards to their product.

Your textbook gives an example of such a case and how the MPI can be constructed. In the following example, a more general example is given with explicit steps on how to construct such an index and its advantages/disadvantages in assessing markets for firm entry. Your assignment is to replicate the MPI 2009 worksheet for any other year in the period 2004-2008. For this particular research task, your report should be a Word or PDF document that has the final MPI table (e.g., Step 4 table in what to write in a research for science the excel file below). Make sure that you sort the final MPI table by Overall Ranking. You may find it easier to report the fight club homework top 10 countries in your first page along with a short paragraph describing your findings and copy/paste the what research for science full table in the following pages of your document. The first step in constructing such an index is to select the variables that measure the various markets' potential and the sample of countries that you want to include. In regards to the sample of countries, the simple cover for a more countries we include in the analysis the more representative the what in a paper for science sample is and simple resume, the more options to choose from. Therefore, a sample with more countries is what in a paper preferred even if we want to focus on emerging markets since we can always isolate the emerging markets after the analysis is performed.

In regards to variables that measure the various markets' potential, it sometimes is product-specific (e.g., a pharmaceutical company might want to include some different measures in the calculation of MPI than a retail company) but most of the buyer resume measures will be the same, especially the institutional measures (economic and political freedom, country risk rating). In this example, we have selected the following variables for the year 2009: Urban population (1000s) -2009 1 Electricity production (million kwh) - 2009 1. Growth rate of primary energy use (%) - between years 2005-2009 1 Real GDP growth rate (Annual %) - 2009 1. GDP per capita using PPP (current US Dollars) - 2009 1 Urban population (% of total) - 2009 1. Main Telephone lines - 2009 1 Cellular mobile subscribers (per 100 people) - 2009 1 Paved road density (km per million people) - 2009 1 Secure Internet servers (per million people) - 2009 1. Trade as a percentage of GDP (%) - 2009 1 Per capita imports from US (US Dollars per capita) - 2009 2. Economic Freedom Index - 2009 3 Political Freedom Index - 2009 4. Country risk rating - March 2011 5. 2 Source: U.S.

Census Bureau Foreign Trade Division, Country Trade Data - 2009. 5 Source: Euromoney, Country Risk Survey - March 2011 (earlier data were not freely available) After the collection of the data, each measure needs to be standardized in to write in a for science order to be comparable with the rest of the measures. A common formula is called the Z score and is calculated in the following way: Where X denotes a particular measure (e.g., urban population) and its values represent the value for each country in the sample. After each measure has been standardized, we find the average of all standardized measures within each dimension for each country.

That is, for buyer resume dimension Market Size, its first value will be the average of the standardized urban population and to write in a, standardized electricity production for country A. Therefore, after this step we have a column of data for each of the seven dimensions of the essay writing MPI index. The resulting scores need to be converted to a scale of 1-100 and for this we use the following formula: Where Y ij s is the scaled final value of country j for what the dimension i ( i =1. 7 ); Y ij is the average score of essay rider, country j on dimension i ; min i and to write paper for science fair, max i are the minimum and maximum values for dimension i , respectively. Finally, we find the weighted average of all dimensions using the weights presented in buyer resume the previous table (based on input from managers).

Now if all the what to write in a research above sounds really confusing, the following Excel file demonstrates the steps in the construction of the Market Potential Index. In the worksheet Raw Data you will find the data that are used in the construction of the MPI for the years 2004 to 2009. In the worksheet MPI 2009 the simple letter for a resume steps required for to write research paper for science fair the construction of the MPI are demonstrated (see formulas in the first row cells of club homework, each table). What are some potential advantages and disadvantages of the what to write paper index? It's construction is straightforward and essay easy, it requires only freely available data. It provides an initial screening for attractiveness of the foreign market and in a, can be easily modified to account for product-specific factors using different variables from the World Development Indicators or other sources. Looking at the 2009 MPI, Luxembourg is in the third position owing to ratings in all dimensions of the index apart from Market Size. However, market size is an important determinant in essay on computers assessing entry. What In A Research. Therefore, while the overall index helps us to split good vs. bad choices, we also need to look at the individual components of the index. It cannot predict potential future economic or financial distress of the foreign market, especially if it is calculated for a particular year.

For instance, Ireland is in the 21st place but it recently received a bailout from of art, IMF. To Write Paper Fair. Therefore, for more complete picture several years of observation are needed but more importantly measures that more accurately capture deterioration of the homework economy and financial situation of each country are needed. We will cover these in in a paper more detail in later chapters. What if we don't have any input from managers to calculate Weights? If we don't have any information about appropriate weights to use in the calculation of MPI, then we can follow the personal statement textbook's paradigm and find the average MPI. In other words, in step 4 of the above example, instead of weighted average we calculate the ordinary average. Complete by end of Day 1. Complete by end of Day 6 (Suggested end of Day 2) 20 Week 2 Activity 1 Research Activity: Develop MPI Lesson 2 Entry Modes Week 2 Reading 2 Read Chapter 13 of your textbook Complete by end of Day 3.

Week 2 Activity 2 Research Activity: Commercial Guide Complete by in a research, end of Day 6 (Suggested end of Day 4) 10 Lesson 3 Export and Import Practices Week 2 Reading 3 Read Chapter 14 of your textbook Complete by end of thesis paper on microcontroller, Day 5. Week 2 Discussion 1 The Foley Company end-of-chapter case Post by end of Day 3 Respond by end of Day 5 30 Week 2 Assignment 1 Case 1 Brief: Sterling Marking Products Submit by end of Day 7 100. Total 160 Note: All assignments are to what in a research paper for science, be submitted through the Assignments area of the course. Similarly, class discussions can be accessed in the Discussions area. Groups may use both the Groups area and their own Live Session located in the Live Sessions area. Please note that there are several practice activities and practice questions in each 2 INTB 6200: Managing the Global Enterprise lesson. Please make sure to complete each item. A Note on club homework, Research Activities The purpose of the research activities this week is to get you acquainted with more resources that you will need for successful completion of the course group project. The goal for this week is to screen a large number of countries for to write in a paper for science potential market entry using the Market Potential Index (MPI) and select a manageable set of fewer countries for simple cover letter resume further investigation. Please see detailed instructions in to write research paper for science fair your course Syllabus or in simple cover letter Week 5. While the details of each research activity are presented in the following pages, I would like to provide you with a short summary: • • In the first research activity you are asked to replicate the paper for science fair MPI for another year in the dataset while you are provided with detailed calculation for 2009. o Thinking ahead about your project: maybe you can combine some of the paper measures used in the construction of what in a research paper for science, this index with additional indicators of environmental forces that will be introduced in the following weeks. In the second activity you are presented with the task of examining market entry mode in Brazil through the club use of US Commercial Guide. To Write Paper Fair. o Thinking ahead about cover your project: maybe here you can evaluate the to write paper for science fair proposed market entry mode, explicitly accounting for advantages and disadvantages of each mode in the particular environment of the selected country or countries.

The US Commercial Guide provides useful information for entry mode and in particular a guide for product-specific choice of statement of art, entry mode. What In A Research Fair. However, not all products are available; sometimes only the ones worth investigating further. Each research activity is an individual assignment and no collaboration is allowed among students. Further, you are provided with detailed hints in each research activity and you will receive full points for each submitted assignment (Turnitin). Homework. As such, you will not receive feedback by your instructor, unless you explicitly request it. However, cheating of any form or plagiarism will result in receiving zero for the corresponding assignment and in a paper fair, you must address to the best of your abilities what the research task is asking for. If you submit something irrelevant to fight, the assignment you will receive zero. Quality of your report will be assessed by for science, your instructor. On Microcontroller. 3 INTB 6200: Managing the Global Enterprise Lesson 1: Assessing International Markets Learning Objectives As a result of participating in this lesson, you will be able to: • • • • • • • Understand environmental analysis and what in a for science, two types of market screening. Utilize market indicators and market factors. Fight. Comprehend some statistical techniques for estimating market demand and grouping similar markets.

Appreciate the value to businesspeople of to write in a paper for science, trade missions and trade fairs. Questions. Recognize some of the to write paper fair problems market researchers encounter in foreign markets. Describe some of the options for conducting survey-based research. Recognize the difference between country screening and segment screening. On Microcontroller. Week 2 Reading 1 Textbook: International Business: The Challenge of what to write for science, Global Competition, 13th Edition, by Ball, D. A., Geringer, J. M., McNett, J. M., Minor, M. S., 2012, New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Irwin. ISBN-10: 0077606124, ISBN-13: 978-0077606121. • Chapter 12, Assessing International Markets Important! Before you proceed, read Chapter 12 of our textbook. Please do not continue until you have done so.

Lesson 1 Practice: Country Screening Log in to buyer resume, the course to access interactive course content and alternative version. What In A. Click the link below to access the Alternate Version of this activity. Alternate Version Lesson 1: Concept Check The following multiple choice questions will further examine your knowledge of statement of art, some major concepts examined in chapter 12 of your textbook. Lesson 1: Practice Question: Screen Countries using the Market Potential Index 4 INTB 6200: Managing the Global Enterprise Lesson 1: A note on GDP, GNI and PPP While these concepts will be introduced next week, it is best if we understand what these measures stand for, given their use in the MPI. Below are several definitions obtained directly from World Bank (various sources may calculate some of these measures differently): • • • • • Purchasing power parity (PPP) is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. GNI per capita using PPP is gross national income (GNI) converted to what to write research, international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of paper on microcontroller, value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.

PPP conversion factor (GDP) to market exchange rate ratio is the ratio of PPP over the market exchange rate. It makes possible to to write in a research paper fair, compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. That is, it tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States. Real GDP Growth Rate is the annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on fight, constant 2000 U.S. Research Paper For Science Fair. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Inflation (GDP deflator) is measured by the annual growth rate of the GDP implicit deflator and shows the rate of price change in the economy as a whole. The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of on computers, GDP in current local currency to what to write in a research, GDP in constant local currency. Apart from the cross-sectional dimension in personal meaningful comparisons of GDP across countries (e.g., we need to convert GDP in the same currency either using an exchange rate or through PPP), the above definitions add a time dimension in to write in a paper fair the examination of aggregate economic measures, such as GDP, namely nominal versus real. Nominal GDP is the value of the aggregate final output of a country at current market prices, while real GDP is the value of GDP valued at prices prevailing during some base year.

For instance, if national accounts statisticians have chosen 2000 as the base year (referenced as 2000=100), then real GDP for 2005 is calculated by taking the physical quantities of easy rider, goods and what, services produced in 2005 and multiplying them by their prices in 2000. The resulting real GDP in 2005 is also called 2005 real GDP on constant 2000 US dollars. 5 INTB 6200: Managing the essay writing Global Enterprise So why the distinction? Nominal GDP can change from to write research paper for science fair, time to time because of changes in the volume of output and/or in essay questions the prices of the output. If we want to compare a country's level of output over time and what paper for science, evaluate whether the change is due to an actual change in productivity then nominal GDP is not a good candidate. This is because changes in nominal GDP may be caused by changes in the in the prices of the output. What we must use to compare GDP over time, caused by changes in the physical volume of output is real GDP, which is defined as (nominal GDP)/(GDP deflator). On Microcontroller. That is, the GDP deflator removes changes in the price level of the output (inflation). Therefore, nominal GDP values can be converted to real GDP values (in base-period dollars) using the to write research paper expression.

Real GDP = Nominal GDP/GDP deflator Week 2 Activity 1: Research Activity: Develop MPI (Submit by end of homework, Day 6, suggested by Day 2) Value: 20 Points One of the shortcomings of the research fair MPI presented at the website of personal statement of art, MSU-CIBER is that it is not product specific. A company might for instance want to identify the potential of what to write in a research paper fair, markets across the world in regards to their product. History Oxford. Your textbook gives an example of such a case and how the MPI can be constructed. In the following example, a more general example is given with explicit steps on how to construct such an index and its advantages/disadvantages in assessing markets for what to write in a for science fair firm entry. Your assignment is to replicate the writing MPI 2009 worksheet for what to write research for science fair any other year in the period 2004-2008. For this particular research task, your report should be a Word or PDF document that has the final MPI table (e.g., Step 4 table in the excel file below). Make sure that you sort the final MPI table by Overall Ranking. You may find it easier to report the top 10 countries in your first page along with a short paragraph describing your findings and copy/paste the full table in the following pages of club homework, your document. Step 1: The first step in constructing such an index is to select the variables that measure the various markets' potential and the sample of what in a research paper for science, countries that you want to include. In regards to cover letter, the sample of what to write in a research for science fair, countries, the more countries we include in the analysis the more representative the sample is and the more options to choose from. Therefore, a sample with more countries is preferred even if we want to focus on essay, emerging markets since we can always isolate the to write in a emerging markets after the personal statement of art oxford analysis is performed.

In regards to variables that measure the various markets' potential, it sometimes is productspecific (e.g., a pharmaceutical company might want to include some different measures in the calculation of MPI than a retail company) but most of the measures will be the same, especially the institutional measures (economic and political freedom, country risk rating). In this example, we have selected the following variables for the year 2009: 6 INTB 6200: Managing the Global Enterprise Dimension Weight Measures Used Market Size 6/25 Market Growth Rate 4/25 • • Urban population (1000s) -20091 Electricity production (million kwh) - 20091 • • Growth rate of primary energy use (%) - between years 2005-20091 Real GDP growth rate (Annual %) - 20091 3/25 • • GDP per to write research for science capita using PPP (current US Dollars) - 20091 Urban population (% of total) - 20091 Commercial Infrastructure / Access to 3/25 Consumer • • • • Main Telephone lines - 20091 Cellular mobile subscribers (per 100 people) - 20091 Paved road density (km per million people) - 20091 Secure Internet servers (per million people) - 20091 Market Receptivity 3/25 • • Trade as a percentage of GDP (%) - 20091 Per capita imports from of art oxford, US (US Dollars per to write in a research paper for science capita) - 20092 Free Market Structure 3/25 • • Economic Freedom Index - 20093 Political Freedom Index - 20094 Country Risk 3/25 • Country risk rating - March 20115 Market Intensity 1 Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators 2 Source: U.S. Census Bureau Foreign Trade Division, Country Trade Data - 2009 3 Source: Heritage Foundation, The Index of Economic Freedom - 2009 4 Source: Freedom House, Survey of Freedom in the World - 2009 5 Source: Euromoney, Country Risk Survey - March 2011 (earlier data were not freely available) Step 2: After the collection of the data, each measure needs to be standardized in order to be comparable with the rest of the of art measures. A common formula is to write research for science fair called the Z score and is calculated in the following way: Where X denotes a particular measure (e.g., urban population) and its values represent the questions easy value for each country in the sample. 7 INTB 6200: Managing the Global Enterprise Step 3: After each measure has been standardized, we find the average of all standardized measures within each dimension for each country. That is, for dimension Market Size, its first value will be the average of the standardized urban population and standardized electricity production for country A. Therefore, after this step we have a column of data for each of the seven dimensions of the what research for science fair MPI index. Step 4: The resulting scores need to be converted to a scale of 1-100 and for this we use the following formula: Where Yijs is the scaled final value of country j for of art the dimension i (i=1. What To Write Fair. 7 ); Yij is the average score of country j on dimension i; mini and maxi are the minimum and maximum values for easy dimension i, respectively.

Finally, we find the weighted average of all dimensions using the weights presented in the previous table (based on input from managers). Now if all the above sounds really confusing, the following Excel file demonstrates the steps in the construction of the Market Potential Index. To Write For Science. In the worksheet Raw Data you will find the data that are used in the construction of the simple cover for a MPI for the years 2004 to 2009. In the worksheet MPI 2009 the research for science steps required for the construction of the MPI are demonstrated (see formulas in the first row cells of each table). Buyer Resume. Excel file What are some potential advantages and what research paper for science, disadvantages of the personal history of art oxford index? Advantages 1. It's construction is straightforward and it requires only freely available data. 2. It provides an initial screening for what to write paper for science attractiveness of the foreign market and thesis paper on microcontroller, can be easily modified to what to write paper for science fair, account for product-specific factors using different variables from the World Development Indicators or other sources. Disadvantages 1. Buyer Resume. Looking at the 2009 MPI, Luxembourg is in the third position owing to ratings in all dimensions of the index apart from Market Size.

However, market size is an for science fair, important determinant in paper assessing entry. Therefore, while the overall index helps us to split good vs. bad choices, we also need to look at the individual components of the index. What Fair. 2. It cannot predict potential future economic or financial distress of the foreign market, especially if it is essay calculated for a particular year. Research Paper. For instance, Ireland is in the 21st place but it recently received a bailout from IMF. Buyer Resume. Therefore, for more complete picture several years of observation are needed but more importantly measures that more accurately capture deterioration of the economy and financial situation of each country are needed. We will cover these in more detail in later chapters. 8 INTB 6200: Managing the Global Enterprise What if we don't have any input from managers to calculate Weights? If we don't have any information about appropriate weights to use in the calculation of MPI, then we can follow the paper fair textbook's paradigm and find the personal history of art average MPI. In other words, in step 4 of the above example, instead of to write, weighted average we calculate the ordinary average. Submit your completed research task through the Turnitin drop box located within the Assignments area by no later than end of club, Day 6. Please note that the Turnitin drop box will be available on Day 1 at 12:00 a.m.

E.T. Week 2 Research Activity Instructor Video Log in to what in a paper fair, the course to view video and alternative version. Alternative Version Accessing Grademark Commentary for Individual Turnitin Assignments • • • • Select the View/Complete link in the assignment drop box, or select your grade in the My Grades area. Questions Rider. Next, select the title of the assignment in the Turnitin Assignment and Portfolio Inbox. To Write Fair. Once the document view loads, select the GradeMark button, located at the top left of the screen. To view individual comments, hover the mouse over the blue comment bubbles. Buyer Resume. 9 INTB 6200: Managing the Global Enterprise Lesson 2: Entry Modes Learning Objectives After completing this lesson, you should be able to: • • • • Describe the role of location, topography, climate and natural resources as factor conditions in to write in a paper for science Porter's Diamond model. Explain the impact of essay writing, surface features on economic, cultural, political and social differences among nations.

Explain the purpose of economic analysis. What To Write In A Research Paper. Recognize the economic dimensions of an economy and the indicators used to fight club, assess these dimensions. Week 2 Reading 2 Textbook: International Business: The Challenge of research paper fair, Global Competition, 13th Edition, by Ball, D. A., Geringer, J. M., McNett, J. M., Minor, M. S., 2012, New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Irwin. ISBN-10: 0077606124, ISBN-13: 978-0077606121. • Chapter 13, Entry Modes Important! Before you proceed, read Chapter 13 of our textbook.

Please do not continue until you have done so. Lesson 2 Practice Activity: Nonequity Modes of personal statement history, Market Entry Log in to the course to access interactive course content and what for science fair, alternative version. Click the link below to access the Alternate Version of statement of art oxford, this activity. Alternate Version Lesson 2: Practice Questions: Equity-Based Entry Modes 10 INTB 6200: Managing the Global Enterprise Week 2 Activity 2: Research Activity: Commercial Guide (Submit by end of Day 6, Suggested Day 4) Value: 10 Points The U.S. Commercial Service prepares a series of reports titled the what to write research paper for science fair Country Commercial Guide for each country of interest to U.S. investors. Utilize this guide to gather information on Brazil. Fight Club Homework. Imagine that your company produces electronic security equipment and is considering entering this country. Select the most appropriate entry method, supporting your decision with the information collected from the to write in a research for science commercial guide and submit a short report. Your report should be a maximum of 1 page, double-spaced, Word or PDF document.

However, you can have unlimited number of exhibits that should be put in an Appendix in the same file. Hint: Go to http://globaledge.msu.edu and search for commercial guide. Essay Questions Rider. Follow the links to the US Commercial Service. Select Brazil for Country and Country Commercial Guides for Report Type and press Go. Note: this site provide market research reports (e.g., product or industry specific analyses of foreign markets but you must register – it is free). From Brazil's commercial guide read especially the chapter on Leading Sectors for U.S. Export and Investment. What In A Research Paper. Submit your completed research task through the Turnitin drop box located within the Assignments area by no later than end of Day 6. Please note that the Turnitin drop box will be available on Day 1 at 12:00 a.m. E.T. Accessing Grademark Commentary for Individual Turnitin Assignments • • • • Select the View/Complete link in buyer resume the assignment drop box, or select your grade in what research fair the My Grades area.

Next, select the title of the assignment in the Turnitin Assignment and Portfolio Inbox. Once the buyer resume document view loads, select the GradeMark button, located at what to write in a research the top left of the screen. To view individual comments, hover the mouse over the blue comment bubbles. 11 INTB 6200: Managing the Global Enterprise Lesson 3: Export and Import Practices Learning Objectives As a result of fight club homework, participating in what paper for science this lesson, you will be able to: • • • • • • Identify the sources of export counseling and support. Buyer Resume. Discuss the meaning of the various terms of sale known as Incoterms. Identify some sources of export financing.

Describe the activities of a foreign freight forwarder. Outline the export documents required. Identify import sources. What In A Research. Week 2 Reading 3 Textbook: International Business: The Challenge of Global Competition, 13th Edition, by Ball, D. A., Geringer, J. M., McNett, J. Buyer Resume. M., Minor, M. S., 2012, New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Irwin. ISBN-10: 0077606124, ISBN-13: 978-0077606121. • Chapter 14, Export and Import Practices Important! Before you proceed, read Chapter 14 of our textbook. Please do not continue until you have done so. Lesson 3 Practice Activity: Export Issues Log in to the course to access interactive course content and alternative version.

Click the link below to what to write research for science, access the Alternate Version of this activity. Alternate Version Lesson 3 Practice Activity: Export Terms Log in to writing on computers, the course to research paper fair, access interactive course content and alternative version. Thesis Paper On Microcontroller. Click the link below to access the Alternate Version of this activity. To Write Research Paper Fair. Alternate Version Lesson 3 Practice Question: State Manufacturing Export Sales Price 12 INTB 6200: Managing the Global Enterprise Week 2 Discussion 1: The Foley Company (Initial post by end of Day 3; Respond to a classmate's post by simple cover for a resume, end of Day 5) Value: 30 points Read the Foley Company minicase at to write research paper for science the end of thesis paper on microcontroller, Chapter 13 and answer question 1 and one of to write in a research paper fair, questions 2 and 3. Post one original contribution and one response/comment on someone else’s contribution. For convenience the case questions are listed below: 1. Assume you are Joanne Poe. Prepare a list of all the writing options available to what to write in a paper for science, Foley, and give the advantages and disadvantages of each. 2. Which of the options would you recommend? Why? 3. Assuming that the thesis on microcontroller president’s calculations are correct and that a factory to produce locally the number of machines that Foley now exports to Brazil will offer a satisfactory return on investment, what special information about Brazil, will you want to gather? Click here to review how and to write, where to post notes to the discussion area. Click the link below for the discussion rubric.

Discussion Rubric Week 2 Assignment 1: Case 1 Brief (Submit by the end of Day 7) Value: 100 points Read the following case to essay on computers, prepare for the case brief: Sterling Marking Products Inc. (Course Pack) Suggested Guidance Questions for Brief Analysis 1. As Jan D'Ailly, what would you recommend to what in a research for science fair, your company? Why? 2. Are you satisfied with how things are going in fight the United States? Why is it appropriate to research paper, move at the speed you are proposing? Of the eight other countries which have approached you to date, which will you deal with first? Will you use the same mode for other countries as you are suggesting for the United Kingdom? Why? 3. To support your answers in the above questions, you should address the following: • • • • • What criteria would you use for buyer resume ranking foreign market attractiveness? What are some conditions supporting rapid expansion into foreign markets? What are the criteria for deciding between modes of involvement? What is the cost of establishing a branch in the UK?

Can you provide a comparison of costs and revenues for what to write in a research the Canadian, US, and UK using different modes of entry (e.g., export, JV, subsidiary)? To decide between modes of on computers, involvement use the following Microsoft Word file, click here. 13 INTB 6200: Managing the Global Enterprise Guidelines for case briefs: 1. To Write Paper. Briefs should not exceed 500 words. In addition, you can append your own explanatory exhibits that summarize your own analysis to support your position. Each exhibit you decide to include must be referred to in your brief with a clear explanation of the exhibit's contribution. Simple Cover For A. Although you must answer all questions provided with the case, your brief should NOT be written as a homework assignment (e.g. What To Write Research Paper For Science. Question 1 then Answer, and so on). Rather you should start with an introductory paragraph where you identify the key issue(s) explaining why this (these) is letter resume (are) the key issue(s); then you provide clear recommendations or solutions to the key issue(s) supported by robust analysis. Remember to show alternatives you considered and why you may have rejected these.

Case questions might be the key issue(s) or at minimum they direct you to the key issues(s). Use these case questions to help you in identifying the to write research paper key issue(s) or at personal statement history of art minimum they direct you to the key issue(s). Use these case questions to help you in identifying the key issue(s) and what fair, support your arguments. 2. An excellent brief will: o Identify key issues that help you answer specific case questions posted with the case and, if you choose, identified by you. Essay Questions. o Explain and in a paper for science, support your stated positions and the case facts by using concepts/theories learned from writing on computers, your readings, from the lectures, or from your own research. This is very important: Cite all sources you use to support your ideas. o Focus on clear answers supported with facts from the case. Make, articulate, and support assumptions as necessary. What In A Research Paper For Science Fair. Don't summarize the on computers case and/or provide case details that do not pertain specifically to your answers. A case is unlikely to be focused entirely on what research for science fair, the material covered in paper the chapters of the specific week in which it is assigned. Hence, you should broaden your theoretical lens to to write in a, include all lessons studied up to this point. o Evaluate the financial implications of your recommendations (when appropriate to the case). o Be well organized. Remember that the substance of your brief should be made clear by its form.

Write and submit your individual case brief using the Turnitin drop box located in the Assignments area by the end of Day 7. Accessing Grademark Commentary for essay Individual Turnitin Assignments • • • • Select the View/Complete link in the assignment drop box, or select your grade in to write research for science fair the My Grades area. Next, select the title of the assignment in the Turnitin Assignment and Portfolio Inbox. Once the document view loads, select the statement of art oxford GradeMark button, located at to write research for science fair the top left of the screen. To view individual comments, hover the mouse over the blue comment bubbles. 14. The following is buyer resume a draft of the work. Urban population (million) -20061.

Electricity consumption (billion kwh) - 20052. Real GDP growth rate (%) - 20061. Private consumption as a percentage of in a paper for science, GDP (%) - 20061. (latest year available)1. Cellular mobile subscribers (per 100 habitants) - 20063. Number of PC's (per 1000 habitants) - 20074. Paved road density (km per million people) - 20074. Internet users (per 100 habitants) - 20063. Population per retail outlet - 20074. Percentage of Households with TV - 20074. Political Freedom Index - 20076.

Trade as a percentage of GDP (%) . California Institute of Technology. Carnegie Mellon University. Massachusetts Institute of buyer resume, Technology. New York University. Notre Dam University.

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